Magnetic force is caused by elector-magnetic force. Which is basic force of nature. This basic force is generated by movement of charged particles from one place to another. This force is measured in form of either attraction or repulsion between two charged particles.
More about magnetic force.
Cause of Earth,s Magnetic force
Earths Magnetic field is caused by flow of currents in its core . Inner core of earth is in solid form and acts as center point and outer core is in form of molten state. It has different temperature regions and pressure gradients which are causes convectional flows within it.Flow of this metal also happen due to rotational effect of earth which causes swirl pools. Due to high temperature present at this level most of metal is in ionized state hence act as charged particles when this charged mass flow from one point to another it causes elector-magnetic force of high range we call geomagnetic force.
South And North Magnetic Pole
Poles made by this force acts like poles of permanent magnet with a north pole and south pole. One thing must be remembered at this point. These magnetic poles are not same as that of our geological north and south poles. These poles keep changing their position slowly over time and there is some range in which it keeps wandering due to random movements in molten core of earth.
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